Flashcard Review

The list of all vocabulary words from each chapter can be found below along with their definitions.


Chapter 1

Agape – Literally “love.” The Agape was an early Christian religious meal that was at first closely related to the celebration of the Eucharist and often preceded this celebration.

Apocryphal – A work of literature with scriptural or quasi-scriptural pretensions which is not genuine, canonical, or inspired by God.

Apologist – Generally, one who writes a work in order to defend and explain the Christian religion. The title also refers specifically to a group of Church Fathers who wrote during the second and third centuries in the Roman Empire.

Apostle – The word “apostle” comes from the Greek apostolos, a form of apostellein, meaning “to send away.” An apostle is literally “one who is sent.” Refers to the twelve men chosen by Jesus during the course of his public ministry to be his closest followers, as well as Sts. Matthias, Paul of Tarsus, and Barnabas, who were chosen after Jesus’ Resurrection.

Apostolic Tradition – Refers to the passing of the Faith of the Apostles from generation to generation. Hippolytus’ work of the same name illustrated the principle by preserving the rites of ordination, Baptism, and the Eucharist used during the third century. The Eucharistic Prayer found in The Apostolic Tradition became the basis for the second Eucharistic Prayer in the 1970 Roman Missal, which was published as part of the intended reforms for the Second Vatican Council.

Baptism – This first Sacrament of Initiation, instituted by Jesus, unites the believer to Christ. In this sacrament, a believer is forgiven of original and personal sin, and thus begins a new life in Christ and the Holy Spirit, and is incorporated into the Church, the Body of Christ (cf. CCC 977, 1213).

Bishop – A bishop is a successor of the Apostles who has received the fullness of Christ’s priesthood.

Catechumens – Literally “the instructed.” Those adults seeking admission to the Church after having met over a long period of time for instruction before being baptized.

Church – In the Scriptures, the Church is described as the Body of Christ and the Temple of the Holy Spirit (cf. Eph 1:22-23). The English word “church” etymologically comes from a Greek word meaning “thing belonging to the Lord,” which was applied originally to the church building. The Latin word ecclesia derives from another Greek word that means “assembly” or “congregation.” Willed by the Father, the Church was founded by Jesus Christ and enjoys the presence and guidance of the Holy Spirit. It is through the Church that God carries out his plan of salvation for all people. The teaching authority and sanctifying power of the Church serve as a means to bring all men and women to greater union with God and with each other as well.

Church History – The history of the Church is the record of the life of Jesus, the actions of men, and the guiding light of the Holy Spirit acting in the Church. This history began with the initial evangelization of the Apostles, and the narrative about Christ’s kingdom on earth is forged as the Church interacts and responds to every culture and historical situation.

Council – An authorized gathering of bishops, guided in a unique way by the Holy Spirit, to discuss ecclesiastical matters with the aim of passing decrees on the themes under discussion.

Deposit of Faith – Deposit of Faith, that is the heritage of Faith contained in Sacred Scripture and Tradition, handed on in the Church from the time of the Apostles.

The Didache – From the Greek meaning “teaching,” a first century treatise concerning Christian morals, practices, and ministry. Its sixteen chapters cover Baptism, fasting, prayers, the Eucharist, and the developing Church hierarchy among the early Christians.

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Ichthys – An acrostic for the Greek phrase Iesous Christos Theou Yios Soter, which is a declaration of the central tenet of the Christian Faith meaning “Jesus Christ, Son of God, Savior.” The acrostic itself spells the word “fish” in Greek.

Infant Baptism – The practice of baptizing infants that became more common during the third century and became universal by the early Medieval period. It remained the common practice for all western Christians until the Reformation in the sixteenth century.

Martyrdom – Being killed for one’s Faith. Christians understand martyrdom as an honor and a privilege since it is a direct participation in the sufferings of Christ. The supreme witness given to the truth of the Faith by bearing witness even unto death.

Papacy – The Vicar of Christ as instituted by Jesus who holds the responsibility and supreme authority for guiding the Church.

Pentecost – Pentecost celebrates the descent of the Holy Spirit upon Mary and the Apostles fifty days after the Resurrection.

People of God – Those “born” into the Church through faith in Christ and Baptism. The term “People of God” is taken from the Old Testament in which God chose Israel to be his chosen people. Christ instituted the new and eternal covenant by which a new priestly, prophetic, and royal People of God, the Church, participates in the mission and service of Christ.

Presbyter – From the Greek word presbyteros for “priest,” which is a contraction of the Greek. In the early Church, the presbyters were the church elders.

Sign of the Cross – The act of tracing the cross down from the forehead with the finger to the breast and then from left to right across the breast. By the early third century, the practice of making the Sign of the Cross was deeply rooted in the Christian world.

Chapter 2

Anathema – A ban solemnly pronounced by ecclesiastical authority and accompanied by excommunication.

Anomoeans – From the Greek anhomoios, meaning “dissimilar,” this sect of Arianism stressed an essential difference between the Father and Son in the Trinity.

Apollinarianism – Founded by Apollinarius in the fourth century, this heresy denied the existence of a human mind and will in Christ.

Apostasy – Apostasy is the willful renunciation of the Faith in its entirety.

Apostate – A person who denies the Faith altogether.

Apostles’ Creed – A statement of belief of the Apostles based upon the New Testament. It is derived from a baptismal creed used especially in Rome known as the Old Roman, and it is therefore associated particularly with the Church of Rome.

Arianism – Third and fourth century heresy founded by the Alexandrian priest Arius. It denied Jesus’ divinity, claiming that Jesus is neither God nor equal to the Father, but rather an exceptional creature raised to the level of “Son of God” because of his heroic fidelity to the Father’s will and his sublime holiness.

Caesaropapism – Refers to the dual role of head of State and leader of the Church in which the temporal ruler extends his own powers to ecclesiastical and theological matters. The Church in the East, influenced by the growing power of the patriarch of Constantinople at the hands of the emperor, tended to accept a role for the Church in which it was subservient to the interests of the State. System in which the temporal ruler extends his own powers to ecclesiastical and theological matters. Such emperors appointed bishops and the Eastern Patriarch, directed the development of liturgical practices, and even aided the recruitment of monks.

Chrysostom – Moniker of St. John Chrysostom meaning “golden mouthed,” it refers to the saint’s extraordinary preaching skills.

Church Fathers – Great, holy leaders who have come forward to lead the Church, explain the Faith, and meet the unique challenges posed by different heresies.

Demiurge – Gnostic creator god of the material world.

Docetism – Derived from the Greek word dokesis, meaning appearance, this Gnostic heresy maintained that Jesus did not die on the cross but was spared by someone else who took his place.

Doctor of the ChurchDoctores Ecclesiae, a specific title given by the pope to those whose development of theology and personal sanctity are exemplary.

Dokesis – Greek word for appearance. Referred to heresy which claimed Jesus only appeared to die on the Cross.

Donatism – Heresy that rejected the sacraments celebrated by clergy who had formerly betrayed their faith.

Ecumenical Council – Derived from the Greek word oikoumene, meaning “the whole inhabited world,” Ecumenical councils bring bishops and others entitled to vote from all over the world to discuss central issues of the Church. They are presided over by the pope and issues decrees which, with the approval of the pope, bind all Christians.

Filioque – Latin word meaning “and the Son,” it is used to express the double procession of the Holy Spirit from the Father and the Son. St. Augustine’s discussion on the relationship of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit laid the essential groundwork for the addition of the Filioque clause to the Nicene Creed in the Medieval period.

Gnosticism – Derived from the Greek word gnosis (“knowledge”), the name refers to one of the principle tenets of this multifaceted heresy, namely, that salvation may be achieved through knowledge. In the second century, Gnosticism, which had eastern origins and influences from Persia and India, very successfully perverted the meaning of Christianity and its symbols. To prove its authenticity, Gnosticism co-opted the Scriptures, the Old and New Testaments, and erected an entirely new cosmological structure that challenged the intent of Christianity.

Heresy – The refusal to accept one or more truths of the Faith which are required for Catholic belief. It is a species of unbelief belonging to those who profess the Christian Faith, but corrupt its dogmas.

Herectic – A person who denies one or more doctrines of the Faith.

Homomeans (Sabellians) – From Greek homoios, meaning “similar,” this Scriptural purist party rejected the use of the word homoousios at the Council of Nicaea because it was not used in the Bible.

Homoousios – Greek word meaning “of the same substance.”

Infallible – Free from error. Ecumenical councils’ definitions on Faith and morals are considered free from error, or infallible, if that is the intention of the pope and bishops in union.

Logos – An ambiguous Greek word with a multitude of meanings that include: word, account, meaning, reason, argument, saying, speech, story and many more. The Gospel of St. John utilizes the word’s complex meaning, referring to the Person of Jesus, the Son of God and a member of the Blessed Trinity, as the logos.

Manichæism – Heresy founded by Mani in the 3rd century. An elaborate form of Gnosticism, it involved the relationship between light and darkness, believing that through rituals and sharing their knowledge believers could regain the light stolen by Satan and hidden in the brains of men, thus freeing the light to return to its original source. Manichæism heavily borrowed from the Scriptures, especially from the writings of St. Paul. Mani incorporated many of St. Paul’s arguments and imagery to support his own teaching concerning the struggle between darkness and light.

Marcionism – Founded by Marcion in the second century, he borrowed the Gnostic idea of a Demiurge, calling this force the jealous and vengeful God of Law. According to Marcionism, the God of Jesus Christ, the true God, has no law and is sent to bring about the demise of the Demiurge. He renounced all Jewish influence on the Church, believing that the God of the Old Testament was the evil Demiurge.

Monophysitism – From the Greek monos, meaning “alone,” and physis, meaning “nature,” this heresy claimed that there is only one nature in Christ and that His human nature is “incorporated” into the Divine Nature.

Monothelitism – Heresy claiming that Christ has two natures but only one will.

Montanism – Founded by Montanus in the second century, he believed that due to an outpouring of the Holy Spirit upon him, he knew that a new, heavenly kingdom was imminent. One of the first apocalyptic heresies, his followers lived a very austere life rejecting second marriages and flight from persecution.

Neo-Platonism – School of philosophy which held that the logos was a created being, not the Supreme Being. Platonic philosophies, in general, viewed the material world as less perfect than the world of ideas. Thus, besides denying Christ’s true divinity, many early Platonic heresies greatly deemphasized Christ’s humanity, if not openly denying it.

Nestorianism – Founded in the fourth century by Nestorius, the Patriarch of Constantinople, this heresy maintained that Christ was both human and divine but was not himself fully human or fully divine. Instead, he believed that Christ was a union of two men, one human the other divine.

Pelagianism – Heresy denying original sin and the need for grace in man’s salvation. According to this heresy, the sacraments are superfluous since salvation and holiness can only be achieved through human endeavor.

Theotokos – Literally “bearer of God,” often translated “mother of God.” Used since the early centuries of the Church, this title of Mary was defended by the Council of Ephesus in 431.

Trajan’s Rescript – Policy for handling Christians in the Roman Empire which stated that Christians who renounced their faith and offered sacrifice would be allowed to live. Those who did not renounce their faith would suffer death.

Vulgate – First translation of the Bible from its original languages into Latin by St. Jerome.

Chapter 3

Allah – Arabic word for God.

Boniface (Bona Facere) – Latin for “doer of good” and the name given to St. Boniface, the missionary to Germany who set the stage for a radical reshaping of the heart of Europe.

Caesaropapism – Refers to the dual role of head of State and leader of the Church in which the temporal ruler extends his own powers to ecclesiastical and theological matters. The Church in the East, influenced by the growing power of the patriarch of Constantinople at the hands of the emperor, tended to accept a role for the Church in which it was subservient to the interests of the State. System in which the temporal ruler extends his own powers to ecclesiastical and theological matters. Such emperors appointed bishops and the Eastern Patriarch, directed the development of liturgical practices, and even aided the recruitment of monks.

Canterbury – The most important episcopal see in England in the sixth century and the site of St. Augustine’s mission to England.

Codex Justinianus – Compiled under Emperor Justinian I, the codex was the collection and systemization of all Roman law as it had developed from his predecessors put together for the purpose of legal uniformity throughout the empire. It is the basis for canon law as well as the civil law throughout Europe.

Diocese – A territorial division of the Church, adapted from the Roman Empire.

Dulia and Latria – Two types of adoration whose distinction was drawn at the seventh Council of Nicaea. An icon may be venerated through acts of respect an honor, called dulia, but God alone is worth of absolute adoration, known in Greek as latria.

Ecumenical Patriarch – Title adopted by the Patriarch of Constantinople.

Filioque – Latin meaning “and the Son,” this was first added at the Third Council of Toledo (589) to the Nicene-Constatinopolitan Creed to clarify that the Holy Spirit proceeded from both the Father and the Son. Later, the Patriarch of Constantinople and the bishops of the East refused the addition, thus contributing to the Great Schism.

Glagolithic Script – Based on the Greek alphabet, it was developed by St. Cyril to aid his mission to the Slavic peoples.

Great Schism – The final split between the eastern and western Churches in the year 1054.

Hagia Sophia – Most famous example of Byzantine architecture, it was built under Justinian I and is considered one of the most perfect buildings in the world.

Hermit – One who, for religious motives, has retired into solitary life, especially one of the early Christian recluses. Derived from the Greek word eremia, meaning “desert,” it is also known as eremitical life.

Huns – A powerful nomadic people of unknown ethnic origin who invaded Europe ca. 375.

Icon – A flat, two-dimensional picture of Christ, the Virgin Mary, or one of the saints which is used as an aid for Christian acts of piety. The general artistic style of icons reflects a certain mystical beauty of Christ the Savior and the saints. When rightly understood, the icon, by virtue of what is represented, is seen as an invitation to prayer.

Iconoclasm – Thoughts or deeds of an iconoclast. Refers to periods in history when a large number of iconoclasts were present.

Iconoclast – From the Greek word eikonoklastes meaning “image breaker,” iconoclasts saw icons as occasions of idolatry and sought to destroy them and purify the practice of the Christian religion. They were condemned at the second council of Nicaea in 787.

Iconophile – Greek for “lover of icons,” this term refers to those who defend and promote the proper use of icons in Christian worship.

Islam – Arabic for “submission,” the faith of the prophet Muhammad, it traces its roots back to Abraham, Hagar and Ishmael.

Koran – Arabic for “recitation,” this is the holy book of the Muslim faith, written by Muhammad, and containing all of the writings that Muhammad claimed he was told by the archangel Gabriel under God’s direction.

LatriaSee dulia.

Monasticism – A way of life characterized by asceticism and self-denial lived more or less in seclusion from the world and under fixed rule and vows. Monastic communities withdraw from the affairs of the world in order to seek God through asceticism and prayer.

Monophysitism – From the Greek monos, meaning “alone,” and physis, meaning “nature,” this heresy claimed that there is only one nature in Christ and that His human nature is “incorporated” into the Divine Nature.

Mozárabes – Spanish people who chose to live under Arab rule after the Muslim invasion of Spain in 711.

Papal States – Lands around Rome, Italy, won by Pepin on behalf and given to the papacy, making the pope a sovereign as well as spiritual leader. The Papal States were ruled by the pope from 754 to 1870.

Scriptorium – Large room in a monastery dedicated to the copying and maintaining of texts.

Servus Servorum Dei – Latin for “servant of the servants of God,” this title was adopted by Pope St. Gregory the Great.

Vow – A solemn promise made voluntarily by a person of reason, to practice a virtue or perform a specific good deed in order to accomplish a future good which is better than its contrary.

Chapter 4

Age of St. Bernard – Refers to the middle of the twelfth century during which St. Bernard of Clairvaux exhibited enormous influence through his counseling of rulers, bishops and popes.

Boni Viri – Latin meaning “good men,” these groups of thirty or more highly respected and independent men, both laymen and priests, were summoned during the Inquisition to give verdict on cases and decide punishment.

Carolingian – The French dynasty of rulers descended from Charlemagne.

Cistercians – So called “White Monks,” after the color of their habits, this order was founded by the Cluniac monk St. Robert of Molesme in 1098. They adopted the Benedictine rule and placed a special emphasis on austerities, farming, simplicity, and strictness in daily life.

Cluny – City in east-central France which gave birth to monastic reform in 910. The first abbey began with twelve monks committed to renewing the rule of St. Benedict.

Crusade – From the Latin word crux (cross) it refers to wars of a religious character, or specifically to a series of eight defensive military expeditions between 1096 and 1270 undertaken by Christians to liberate the Holy Land and stop the expansion of Islam.

Feudalism – System that came to organize the politics, economy, and social life of Medieval Europe after the split of the Carolingian empire. Based on the relationship between wealthy, landowning lords and the common villagers, farm-workers, it was a relatively simple arrangement in which the commoners would pay the landowner in labor or services in return for the lord’s military protection against foreign or domestic foes.

Immuration – Imprisonment for those who recanted their heresy because of fear of punishment or death.

Indulgence – A remission before God of temporal punishment due to sins, the guilt of which has already been forgiven through the sacrament of Penance.

Inquisitor – Special judges appointed by the pope during the Inquisition who examined and judged the doctrinal opinions and moral conduct of suspicious individuals.

Lay Investiture – The appointment of bishops and abbots by secular rulers, often in exchange for temporal protection.

Military Order – Arising out of the necessity of defending the Holy Places in Palestine as well as the pilgrims who traveled there, these orders combined both military and religious life, emphasizing dedication, discipline and monastic organization.

Nepotism – From the Italian nepote, “nephew” and Latin nepos, “grandson.” The appointment of family members to important positions of authority.

Simony – The selling of ecclesiastical offices, pardons, or emoluments by either secular or spiritual leaders.

Term of Grace – The procedure for inquisition began with this month long period which allowed for the inhabitants of a heresy-ridden district to appear before the inquisitor, confess their sins, and perform penance.

Treaty of Verdun – Signed in 843, the treaty divided the Carolingian empire into three sections, which led to the eventual destruction of Charlemagne’s empire.

Vicar of Christ – Title used by Pope Innocent III rather than the earlier title, Vicar of St. Peter. “Vicar of Christ” emphasized Innocent III’s understanding of the pope as a representative of Christ himself.

Chapter 5

Babylonian Captivity – The seventy years (1305-1377) the papacy spent in Avignon under the watchful eye of the French kings.

Bonæ Litteræ (Litteræ Humaniores) – Latin for “good letters” or “more humane letters,” these terms were used by humanists to describe works which focused on man’s relation to the world rather than man’s relation to God and eternal salvation.

Clericis Laicos – Written by Pope Boniface VIII to King Philip the Fair in 1296, this letter asserted that kings did not have the right to tax clergy without permission from the pope. Philip responded by cutting off all French shipments of gold, silver, and jewels to Italy. The loss of Church revenues from this action forced Boniface to back down.

Conciliarism – Movement which supported the power of a council to appoint a candidate for the papacy, thus placing a council’s authority over that of the pope.

Defensor Pacis (Defender of Peace) – Written by Marsiglio of Padua, a former rector of the University of Paris, this book made the first clear assertion of the supremacy of secular powers over the Church. He declared that the faithful were the true authority of the Church.

Dictamen – The “Art of Composition” taught at Bologna, which included rules for drawing up briefs and other legal documents. This training attracted many students and soon developed into another intense program specializing in grammar and rhetoric.

Free Cities – Italian cities ruled by noble families whose interest in trade, wealth, and power helped form a society based on commerce in which merchants were free to trade with whomever they pleased.

Gallicanism – The idea that the French Roman Catholic clergy favored the restriction of papal control and the achievement by each nation of individual administrative autonomy.

Gothic – Style of Medieval building that flourished from 1200-1500. By using pointed arches, ribbed vaulting and flying buttresses, this style created an airy and well-lit space and gave masons, artists, and architects the freedom to adorn buildings with works of art.

High Renaissance – Period beginning in the late fifteenth century, it produced some of the most well-known religious and secular artwork of the period from such figures as Leonardo, Raphael and Michelangelo.

Humanism – An intellectual and literary movement that began in the city-states of Italy during the late fourteenth century. Moving away from the Scholastic education of the Medieval era, the humanists thought that education had a moral purpose, the end of which was to make the individual a better, wiser, and more virtuous human being. To achieve this, they aimed to base every branch of learning on classical Greek and Roman culture.

Husitism – Movement started by Jan Hus which denied the authority of tradition, the existence of Purgatory, transubstantiation, and the necessity of good works in salvation. It was especially popular in Bohemia.

Mendicant Friars – From the Latin word mendicare, meaning “to beg,” this new type of religious order was not bound to a place or community and subsisted entirely on alms. The Franciscans and Dominicans are the largest orders of mendicant friars.

Nominalism – Put forth by William of Ockham, this theory taught that the human mind can only know individual, sensible objects, and that universal ideas, like truth, goodness, and humanity are only names—nomina. Only God guarantees that individual experiences properly and consistently correspond to the nomina, which people have falsely assumed to be self-generated concepts. From this way of thinking it follows that moral and religious truths are inaccessible through mere human reason, and can only be known through revelation.

Northern Humanism – Humanism had a different effect in Northern Europe where there were not the same economic and social changes as there were in Italy. Life was much like it was during the Medieval age, and rather than redirecting study to classical, pagan culture, those in the North sought to reconcile humanism with Christianity.

Peace and Truce of God – Principle which, for much of the Middle Ages, kept European kings at peace by recognizing a common unity in Faith between European peoples who otherwise did not share common nationalities or customs.

Platonic Forms – Philosophical construct developed by the fifth century Greek philosopher Plato that held that all things that exist emanate from the primal unity of the unseen idea, at the very core of which is the Form of the Good.

Quadrivium – Latin for “four ways.” More advanced program in the Medieval liberal arts program, it included the study of arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music.

Renaissance – French for “re-birth,” this period is characterized by the popular desire to return to the civilization of the Greco-Roman world and re-awaken a sense of human beauty and personal achievement.

Scholasticism – The system of philosophical and theological inquiry first developed in the Medieval schools of Christian Europe, creating its own technical language and methodology.

Spiritual Espousal – These “Mystical Marriages” were experienced by a number of great saints, most notably St. Catherine of Siena. They occur when Christ takes a soul as his bride, leading it to an increase of charity and familiarity with Christ.

Stigmata – Phenomenon in which a person bears all or some of the wounds of Christ in his or her own body.

Studium Generale – Unified program of study offered by Medieval universities which included theology, law, medicine and the arts.

Studium Humanitas – Study of the humanities which placed a great emphasis on Classical texts and literature, as well as revival of the study of Greek and Latin.

Trivium – Latin for “three ways,” this was one of two sections into which the arts were divided in Medieval universities. It referred to the three primary branches of Medieval education: grammar, rhetoric and dialectic.

Unam Sanctam – Letter written by Pope Boniface claiming that in order to save his or her soul, every human being—including the king—must be subject to the pope. King Philip responded by calling his own national council, the Estates General, to condemn and depose the pope.

Universitas – A type of corporation that protected the educational and administrative needs of masters and students in schools of the mid-eleventh century.

Utopia – Meaning “no place,” this term was coined by St. Thomas More who, in his book by that name, describes a religious society, heavily influenced by divine revelation, in which goods were held in common and the state regulated business.

Wycliffeism – Heretical movement founded by John Wycliffe which held that authority to rule depends on moral virtue; the Bible alone contains all divine revelation, preaching is more important than the sacraments or the Mass, and the pope has no primacy of jurisdiction.

Chapter 6

Act of Supremacy – Proclaimed King HenryVIII the supreme leader of the Church in England, which meant that the pope was no longer recognized as having any authority within the country, and all matters of faith, ecclesiastical appointment, and maintenance of ecclesiastical properties were in the hands of the king.

Bonzes – Japanese Buddhist monks who saw St. Francis Xavier and his missionaries as a danger to their established influence; they worked to oust him from Japan.

Consubstantiation – A term describing Christ’s co-existence in the Eucharist. Luther taught that the Eucharist was not truly Christ, but that He was present in it as heat is in a hot iron. Accordingly, the substance of Christ’s body co-exists with the substance of the bread and his blood with the wine.

De Propaganda Fide – Congregation founded by Pope Gregory XV to promote and establish apostolic missions.

First Covenant – Document drawn up and signed by Scottish lords that adopted a Calvinist profession of faith and abolished the power of the pope, establishing Presbyterianism in Scotland.

Institutes of the Christian Religion – Written by John Calvin, it contained four books which codified Protestant theology. Among these beliefs were the ultimate authority of the word of God, the depravity of man, and his belief that the Bible is the only source of Revelation.

Pilgrimage of Grace – Catholic uprising in England in 1569 that tried to restore the Catholic religion, drive Protestant leadership from London, and acknowledge Mary Stuart as England’s rightful heir.

Pluralism – Within the Church, a bishop having control over more than one diocese.

Politiques – French political faction with no strong religious ties that tried to manipulate political divisions in France for its own political gain.

Predestination – A doctrine of Calvin which taught that salvation depended solely on God’s pre-determined decision. According to this principle, those who are saved (the elect) are chosen by God through no effort of their own. God also chooses others to be damned. This damnation is necessary to show God’s great justice.

Scrupulosity – The habit of imagining sin when none exists, or grave sin when the matter is not serious.

Sola Scriptura – “Scripture alone.” It is the belief that all man needs for salvation is the Bible. This is a tenet for most Protestants.

Spanish Armada – Attempting to remove Elizabeth from the throne of England, Philip II sent this “invincible” fleet of ships in 1588. The invasion was unsuccessful.

Spanish Fury – During the occupation of the Low Countries by Philip II’s forces, the Spanish army mutinied after not having received pay. During the subsequent rampage, these Spanish troops pillaged and murdered over six thousand people in Antwerp.

Spiritual Exercises – During a year of intense prayer, St. Ignatius was inspired to write this guide for spiritual perfection, which is divided into reflections and meditations meant to help the believer emulate Christ.

St. Thomas Christians – Group of Christians in India who are descended from the original missionary activity of St. Thomas the Apostle.

Stadtholder – Local prince who led the provinces of the Low Countries during times of trouble. Otherwise business and politics in the region were carried out locally and independently.

Thirty-Nine Articles – Issued by Elizabeth I, these provided for the foundation of the Anglican Church, maintaining all the outward appearances of Catholicism, but implanting Protestant doctrine into the Church of England.

Tilma – Cloak worn by Indians in Mexico. It was on his tilma that Our Lady of Guadalupe left her image to St. Juan Diego.

Transubstantiation – The change of the substance of bread and wine into the Body and Blood of Christ with only the accidents (properties) of bread and wine remaining.

Chapter 7

Age of Enlightenment – Intellectual movement which sprang up from a whole-hearted enthusiasm for, and faith in, man’s use of reason and scientific progress. Enlightened man believed that the study of science and nature could help correct all the problems of society, including poverty, disease, and war.

Assignats – Paper bonds. After the Legislative Assembly passed laws to confiscate all church property, the lands were redistributed to the people in the form of Assignats.

Black Cardinals – Cardinals who were forced to wear the same black vestments as priests instead of their usual red as a punishment by Napoleon for refusing to recognize his marriage to Maria Louisa.

Bourgeoisie – French upper middle class composed of mostly wealthy bankers, merchants, and lawyers.

Constitutional Monarchy – System of government established in England in 1689 which blended the monarchical and parliamentary systems.

Deism – Rationalist philosophy which accepted the principle of a first cause, but denied Divine intervention or Providence in the world. Deism understood God as a great watchmaker who created the universe with laws and guiding principles, but then left the world to man’s discovery and domination.

Estates General – Legislative body of the Old Régime in France. Although it had not been called since 1614 and was widely held as misrepresentative, Louis XIV convened it in 1788 to respond to the growing financial crisis in France.

Febronianism – “Gallican” movement that influenced the Church in Germany. It argued that the pope was merely an administrative head of the Church who did not have the power to legislate. According to this, ultimate authority of the Church is found in the national leader. It further denied the primacy of the pope over bishops and the pope’s authority to speak definitively on matters of Faith and morals.

Freemasonry – A major vehicle in the spreading of rationalist ideas, this secret, fraternal organization bases all its practices, rules, and organization on Enlightenment philosophy and reason. Many eighteenth-century European and American leaders were members of this organization that sought (and still seeks) to destroy the influence of the Church.

Glorious Revolution – Bloodless revolution in England in which James II was forced to abdicate the throne and power was placed in the hands of his children, William and Mary.

Jansenism – Developed by Cornelius Jansen, erroneous belief that man was entirely free in the state of innocence and his will tended to do what was right. According to him, original sin made man a slave to sin and all his actions corrupted him. His only hope was God’s grace, which could save him. Jansen taught that God only granted salvific grace to a small number of “predestined” people.

Napoleonic Code – Napoleon’s code of law which blended revolutionary and traditional ideas. It provided for equality and freedom of religion, but it also introduced civil marriage and divorce and placed heavy restrictions on the Church.

Philosophes – French word describing the proponents of Enlightenment philosophy who arose as the new authorities on virtually all matters. They rejected divine revelation and supernatural religion, rather than believing that all knowledge ought to be based on demonstration through human reason.

Plantations – Large areas in the northeast of Ireland that were cleared of Catholics by James I and resettled by Scottish Protestants in an effort to “breed out” the Catholics.

Quietism – Movement founded by Miguel Molinos which advocated absolute passivity during prayers and contemplation. The soul, according to Molinos, should be indifferent to everything, including temptation, and should simply rest perpetually in God. Asceticism was not necessary, since it was sufficient for the soul to humble itself in order for God to accept someone with sins. Quietists taught people to make no effort to avoid sin nor cooperate with God’s grace for his salvation.

Reign of Terror – Describes rule under the Committee of Public Safety in which the committee instituted a systematic policy of curbing violence through frequent and persistent accusations and mass execution in the interest of suppressing counterrevolutionary tendencies.

Chapter 8

Catholic Action – An organization encouraged by Popes St. Pius X and Pius XI that was to become a key instrument of the lay apostolate.

Christian Modernism – Originated in the late nineteenth century, some Catholic intellectuals, out of a desire to address contemporary currents of thought, embraced trends in psychology, science, and philosophy and tried to adapt Christian thought to them.

Communism – As envisioned by Karl Marx, more than a political system, this was a necessary historical development, the culmination of human history. The exploited proletariat would establish, through revolution, a new social-economic system in which social classes no longer existed. In theory, this system offered a Utopian vision: the proletariat held all wealth and property in common, securing a society based on absolute equality in which the government provided everything that everyone needed.

Concert of Europe – Alliance established by Metternich which sought to dismantle the reforms brought about by Napoleon and crush any liberal revolution. This arrangement left Austria, and Metternich, as the main arbiter of European affairs beginning in 1815.

Cristeros – This Catholic group led an armed rebellion under the regime of Plutarco Calles in Mexico. They sought to resist anti-Catholic persecution but were quickly put down. Several of the fighters are martyrs and saints.

Gulag – A vast system of Siberian prison camps and penal colonies set up during Stalin’s dictatorship in which many thousands of opponents of the regime served long sentences or were executed.

Holy Alliance – In 1815, Czar Alexander I of Russia proposed the creation of this alliance (including Russia, Prussia, and Austria) which promised to uphold Christian principles of charity and peace. Despite Alexander’s pious intentions, the Holy Alliance did not outline a program effective enough to ensure peace and was not taken seriously by its members.

Industrialization – The rapid transformation from an agricultural to an industrial economy which altered the way people lived and dramatically changed how countries did business toward production of goods through mechanization.

Kulturkampf – Bismarck’s policy of ridding Germany of Catholicism. It subjected Catholic schools and seminaries to state control, forbade religious orders to teach, and banned every religious order in Germany. Furthermore, any priest or bishop who did not acknowledge state supremacy over the Church in Germany was fined or imprisoned.

Liberalism – Put generally, this ideology approved of everything that was modern, enlightened, efficient, and reasonable. Based on the principles of natural law, liberals saw monarchies as unjust, out-of-date, and not properly representative of the people.

Monroe Doctrine – American President James Monroe’s isolationist announcement in 1823 that the Western Hemisphere was closed to further European colonization and that any attempt by European states to intervene in the affairs of Latin America would be considered an act of war against the United States.

Nazism – A blend of nationalist totalitarianism, racism aimed especially at Jews, neo-paganism, and the moral nihilism of the nineteenth century German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche, this political party, headed by Adolf Hitler, seized power in 1933 and initiated policies that sought to strengthen and unify Germany in order to bring about an expansive New World Order based on Nazi ideals.

Oath Against Modernism – In an encyclical issued on September 1, 1910, St. Pius X required all Catholic priests to uphold Catholic teaching against modern heresies. Because of the Oath, much Modernist thinking in the Church went underground.

Papal Infallibility – The dogma that the pope cannot make an error, when speaking ex cathedra (when in the exercise of his office as shepherd and teacher of all Catholics) and defining a doctrine concerning Faith and morals to be held by the whole Church.

Secular Humanism – Nineteenth-century intellectual movement in which thinkers described an increasingly mechanical understanding of the human person. As philosophy drifted even further from notions of God and religion, many began to argue that the world is essentially amoral and that the guidelines for governing what is right and wrong no longer apply.

Ultramontanism – Literally “over the mountains.” Catholics who looked to the pope for support and leadership, emphasizing his centrality and authority more than ever before.

Chapter 9

Americanism – Condemned by Pope Leo XIII, this movement sought a way to adapt the Catholic Faith within American principles and modern ideas. It questioned themes like passive and active virtues, the best form of religious life, and the correct approach to evangelization.

Caretaker Pope – Refers to an aged pope whom the College of Cardinals elects to serve as a pastoral figure who would make few changes. John XXXIII was elected as a caretaker pope but proved to be anything but.

Doctrine of Collegiality – Set out by the Dogmatic Constitution of the Church published by the Second Vatican Council, this states that bishops, in union with and under the pope, share in teaching and governing the Church.

Lay Trusteeism – Partly to conform to American civil law, partly out of enthusiasm for democracy, and partly in imitation of the congregational system in American Protestantism, laymen became the owners of parish property, administered parish affairs, and in some places began hiring their own pastors in defiance of the bishop.

National Catholic Welfare Conference – The NCWC was the bishops’ vehicle in the early- and mid-twentieth century for cooperative national-level action in social action, education and youth work, communications, and other fields.

National Conference of Catholic Bishops – (NCCB) Responding to a Vatican II mandate, the bishops organized themselves as an episcopal conference replacing the old, more loosely structured NCWC.

New Evangelization – Called by St. John Paul II, he hoped to reintroduce the Faith into formerly Christian regions—notably Western Europe—where religious practice had declined in the face of affluence, pleasure-seeking, and the secularistic mentality arising from the rationalism of eighteenth-century Enlightenment philosophy and the scientism of the nineteenth century.

Quebec Act – Passed in 1774 by the British Parliament, it extended political and legal concessions to the inhabitants of Quebec and granted them religious freedom.

United States Catholic Conference – (USCC) A sister organization to the NCCB created to collaborate with priests, religious, and laity in a number of fields.

United States Conference of Catholic Bishops – (USCCB) Single structure that replaced the NCCB and USCC in 1991.